The Third International Conference of Scuola Democratica will feature five symposia focusing on significant issues in contemporary education, sponsored by leading international and national organizations: Associazione “Per Scuola Democratica”, Bolton Hope Foundation, Fondazione per la Scuola (Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation), INDIRE, INVALSI.

The symposia will be mainly conducted in Italian. They will include slides in English to accommodate an international audience.

Universities and schools in the face of educational poverty and inequalities

Promoted by Associazione "Per Scuola Democratica"

Amphitheatre A
Wednesday, 05/June/2024, 2:30-4:30pm

The issue of social justice in the sense of combating unfair inequalities and educational poverty questions the institutional system of education as a whole and in all its phases, from early childhood to adult education. And it is a difficult challenge; to overcome it, positive synergies must be created between the individual components of the system. In particular between the two most important educational institutions: schools and universities. This symposium is dedicated precisely to analysing the synergies or negative interactions that currently exist between the two most important institutions, school and university, and identifying how to replace them with positive synergies, i.e. with coordinated policies to counter them. The perception one often has when teaching at university is that the chips are down, as the glaring inequalities and basic skills shortages one encounters when dealing with freshmen have their deep, perhaps irreversible, origin in the previous cycle of education, the upper secondary school, and/or in the policies concerning it. Similarly, teachers in the latter not infrequently attribute the responsibility for the gaps they face to their colleagues in the first cycle of education and/or the policies relating to it. Lastly, some, even among scholars, go back even further, judging the disadvantages generated in the initial pre-school education phase, whose fundamental subject is the family with its social and cultural status, to be decisive and irreparable.

It is right that we look downstream, provided we do not shirk our responsibilities, but also look upstream, i.e. at the responsibilities of the university. For two reasons. Firstly because in many countries, including Italy, it plays not only a receptive but also an active role in the production of inequalities and educational poverty. And because it influences – and these are no small influences – what happens before, in the earlier cycles of education.

We have therefore set this symposium on two axes: 1. The social injustices that the university and university policies produce internally in an indigenous form; 2. The influence of the university and university policies on the production of social injustices within the secondary school.  

1. The social injustices generated within the university

The symposium will start from a brief description of the inequalities present in the Italian university. Some examples:

  • the percentage of graduates out of the total population, which places us at the bottom of the scale among European countries;
  • drop-outs in the first year of the course;
  • the large macro-territorial gaps to the detriment of universities in southern Italy.

We will then go on to examine two of the not inconsiderable causes of this situation.

First of all, Italy has so few graduates because tertiary education substantially coincides with university education, since short vocational courses both inside and outside university are lacking (or marginal), unlike in most other European countries. The recent law reforming ITS, the slim extra-university tertiary route, aims to double the number of its graduates, but it is not certain that this goal will actually be achieved and if it were, it is even less certain that it would be enough to broaden the social base of tertiary education, i.e. to make it sufficiently inclusive. This is where the issue of bi-directional interactions between different educational cycles comes back into play, in this case in the sense of bottom-up conditioning. This is an issue addressed by a further, and more recent, legislative reform: the establishment of a technology and vocational track encompassing secondary and tertiary VET. This reform continues to be the subject of lively debate.

The second cause of the lack of inclusiveness of tertiary education that will be discussed in this symposium is to be found in the policy of the right to study, which is lacking in both secondary and university. Here not even all students who would be eligible for scholarships actually manage to receive them. And the same deficiency occurs in interventions concerning board, lodging, and transport. Interventions, the latter, which the greater territorial mobility of university students makes particularly important.


2. Social injustices generated at school but with strong influence from the university

Two of these will be discussed in the symposium.

The first is guidance, whose ineffectiveness induces students and their families to make wrong choices in the transition from upper secondary to university. Choices that weigh down the first year, causing drop-outs or rethinking with changes and consequent extension of study paths. Here the university is also responsible because its information activity is lacking if not distorted by the competition of the various degree courses in attracting students.  

Reasoning about the policies to be undertaken raises several questions. Two for example: is it sufficient to improve the information to students on the job opportunities of the various degree courses? Or is it necessary to make them better aware, at an early stage, of their vocations and potentials on the one hand and, on the other, of what changes in organisation, relations with lecturers and study methods when moving from school to university?

The second and even more important influence of the university that will be discussed in the symposium will be teacher training, a prerogative that in Italy has mainly been the preserve of the various faculties or university disciplines and recently the subject of a legislative reform that has just entered the implementation phase. From the perspective of our conference, the questions that arise are at least the following:  What skills and habitus does the ‘inclusive’ teacher need to be equipped with and how should he or she be trained ? Hence the second: has the university so far fostered the growth of inclusive skills and habitus in secondary teachers? And the third: is the reform about to be implemented in this direction or not, or at least not yet to an adequate extent?

Symposium agenda Chair: Alessandro Cavalli
  • A brief statistical overview of inequalities in Italian universities Mariano Porcu (University of Cagliari)
  • The short vocational paths and the issue of widening the social base of Higher Education Andrea Gavosto (Agnelli Foundation)
  • The Right to Study Federica Laudisa (IRES, Observatory for the University and the Right to Study of the Piedmont Region)
  • The orientation Antonello Giannelli (ANP – Associazione Nazionale Presidi)
  • The training (initial and career-long) of the inclusive teacher, speakers: Massimo Baldacci (University of Urbino) and Alessandro Cavalli (University of Genoa, Associazione “Per Scuola Democratica”)
  • Discussion

Autonomy and alliances for closing gaps in education

Promoted by Bolton Hope Foundation

Auditorium Arcari
Tuesday, 04/June/2024, 2:30pm – 4:30pm

The general trend is positive. Over the last ten years, early school leaving has fallen by a third, from 17.6% in 2012 to 11.5% (2022). Many regions of Italy have even passed the EU threshold (9%). Nevertheless certain parts of the country, especially in the South, continue to lag behind. 16.1% of young people in Campania and 18.8% in Sicily leave school without a diploma. Early school leaving is not simply a problem of empty desks. For a number of years, Invalsi (the National Institute for the Evaluation of the Education System) has measured the rate of “the so-called ‘implicit’ dispersion, represented by students who obtain an upper secondary school qualification but have not reached a sufficient level of competence: according to INVALSI data for 2022 they represent 9,7% disengagement (cfr. ADI). Here too there are significant differences between the regions, with Sicily at 18% and Campania at 19.8%. Combining the figures for early school leaving and disengagement, one student in three in these regions embarks on adult life without the literacy skills needed to exercise their rights of citizenship or to take part effectively in further training/specialisation. 

The differences between the regions are determined by situations of greater economic and cultural poverty among families, a poorer offering of educational services by local authorities (crèches, canteens for full-time education, sports facilities, etc.), more dilapidated schools and reduced regional capacities for organising training programmes. In the South, for example, there is practically no vocational education and training system. In five years, a child in Palermo attends over one thousand hours less schooling than a child of the same age in Florence: the equivalent of one year’s education. In the first few years of life, that same child has been unable to attend a crèche or nursery school – a great opportunity for socialising and improving decision-making skills, especially for children suffering from educational poverty.

This clear divide between North and South conceals less visible but equally important differences within the regions. Though the Italian education system is almost entirely state-run and governed by the Ministry of Education according to standards that are in theory identical for the entire country, in reality this uniformity is increasingly a matter of appearance and hides practices and results that differ radically not just within the one region but within the same urban areas and, in many cases, even within the same institute. Significant differences can appear between one site and another and even between one class and another. Many studies have revealed that in large towns and cities, from the start of primary education, parents’ choices lead to a far more polarised social composition within schools than exists in the urban areas where those schools are located. In the South this difference is highly visible even between one class and another of the same school. This polarisation is exacerbated by that associated with the teaching career: in the absence of incentives for choosing to teach in more difficult schools, teachers inevitably begin their career in disadvantaged suburban schools and gradually move to more prestigious ones in town centres. The result of this is that “good” schools, partly thanks to talented directors and teaching staff, are able to seize every opportunity afforded by their autonomy to build alliances with regional bodies, local authorities, businesses, associations, museums, etc. and to provide their students with an excellent education. 

At the other end of the scale, schools staffed by supply teachers and run by directors who are often responsible for a number of institutes, and with parents who are unable to provide supplementary resources, fall behind in their ability to improve their own resources and structures. This weakness makes it difficult for them to access and make effective use of the funding actually made available by ministerial announcements. Left to their own resources, they view improvement as unattainable. 

At the other end of the scale, schools staffed by supply teachers and run by directors who are often responsible for a number of institutes, and with parents who are unable to provide supplementary resources, fall behind in their ability to improve their own resources and structures. This weakness makes it difficult for them to access and make effective use of the funding actually made available by ministerial announcements. Left to their own resources, they view improvement as unattainable Just like “good” schools, along with competent and passionate teachers and directors, under-performing schools need autonomy to improve their image, to become more attractive, innovative and effective, and to gain a better reputation locally. We would like to see schools in difficulty given guided assistance and positive discrimination to help develop long-term improvement plans, along with the extended autonomy needed to implement them. The focus must not only be on the professional development and improvement of teaching staff – though this too is essential – or on the refurbishment of school buildings: multi-disciplinary support must be provided for students encompassing the specific needs of the school, young people’s socialisation and their complex affective dimension. Such responsibility will prove irksome for those teachers who are convinced that their only task is to transmit knowledge within their own field of knowledge. Many of the schools in greatest difficulty have established important alliances with the vast and often deeply rooted world of non-governmental organizations, through initiatives to support families, offer extended learning hours, support the daily work of teachers, acquire and apply new skills, and renovate and run new amenities, sports and theatrical facilities, sometimes with rich natural and artistic resources. Making effective use of these offerings in students’ development and integrating them into the teaching programme demands serious commitment from both teachers and school directors, along with a good level of school autonomy.

The challenge of this new and ambitious task lies in enabling schools operating in difficult contexts to design and implement long-term operating plans that bring all the necessary competences into the education project, from teaching skills as such to professional skills currently considered external and relevant only to educators in service sector associations.

Symposium agenda

Chair: Luciano Benadusi

Part 1: Analysis

  • Nazareno Panichella (University of Milan, Gesi)
  • Roberto Ricci (INVALSI)
  • Orazio Giancola (Sapienza University of Rome)
  • Gianluca Argentin (University of Milan Bicocca)

Part 2: Policies and Proposals

  • Ludovico Albert (Bolton Hope Foundation)
  • Cristina Ghilardenghi (Catholic University of Milan)
  • Vanessa Pallucchi (Spokesperson for the Third Sector)
  • Fabrizio Manca (Italian Ministery for Instruction and Merit, Directorate General for School Systems Evaluation, and Internationalization of the National Education System)

School segregation in Italy and Europe: can research findings improve local strategies for inclusive education?

Promoted by Fondazione per la Scuola (Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation)

Auditorium SP
Wednesday, 05/June/2024, 2:30pm – 4:30pm

Educational opportunities for children should be of high quality and equal. At the global level, education is recognised as a fundamental right and a key driver for the Sustainable Development Goals (UNESCO, 2016). At the European level, quality education and equal access to quality education is considered one of the most relevant fields for making European societies fairer and more inclusive (European Pillar of Social Rights, 2024).

A comparative analysis of Europe’s education and training systems indicates that significant progress has been made over the past years: early school leaving is declining, tertiary educational attainment and participation in early childhood education and care are on the rise, but further work is still necessary to improve equity in education (European Commission, 2022). Even though education reforms over the last decades were designed with the aim to reduce inequalities and improve inclusion of all groups, school segregation remains a problem, especially in large cities and metropolitan areas. 

The term ‘school segregation’ refers to the uneven distribution of students in a reference territory. It can happen between sectors, between schools, within schools or classrooms, between and within different catchment areas. The phenomenon can be addressed as an urban or educational problem, interpreted as an institutional or a spatial effect, often linked to inequality: on the one hand, segregation rises from inequalities; on the other, segregation freezes inequalities, exacerbating them (European Cities Against School Segregation, 2024). 

The symposium will address the topic of school segregation and its relevance for quality and inclusive education and training. The outcome and trends emerging from recent research on the topic will be used to discuss the implications that a better understanding of territorial mobility and forms of school segregation can have, at different levels (national or local), to develop more effective strategies and interventions to ensure that all students, including those from disadvantaged groups, have the same opportunities for social inclusion. 

The symposium is organised by Fondazione per la Scuola of Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation, a training and research organization officially accredited by the Italian Ministry of Education working on inclusive and quality education at primary and secondary level. The interest on the topic arises from a research project on school segregation carried out by Fondazione per la Scuola in collaboration with the Municipality of Turin and two departments of the University of Turin in the years 2020-2023. By building upon the methodology and results of a previous research project on the topic (Pacchi & Ranci, 2017), it implied a mixed-methods approach to study the causes of school segregation at primary level and quantify its size within the school catchment areas of the metropolitan area of Turin. 

The symposium will last 2 hours, it will be held in Italian (and partly in English), and it will be chaired by Giulia Guglielmini, President, and Veronica Mobilio, Head of the Research Unit at Fondazione per la Scuola. 

European Commission (2022). European Education Area Progress Report.

European Cities Against School Segregation (2024).
European Pillar of Social Rights (2024). 
Pacchi C., Ranci C. (2017). White flight a Milano. La segregazione sociale ed etnica nelle scuole dell’obbligo. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
UNESCO (2016). World Social Science Report.

Symposium agenda (draft)
  • Welcome Veronica Mobilio, Head of the Research Unit, Fondazione per la Scuola
  • Causes and effects of school segregation: a review of research results Antonio Schizzerotto (University of Trento)
  • Dynamics of school segregation. Evidence from a European project (EN) Xavier Bonal i Sarró (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Coordinator of the Erasmus+ ECASS project – European Cities Against School Segregation)
  • Local strategies for inclusion: policies and practices Starting from the key findings of a recent research project carried on the mobility of primary level students in the city of Turin, the discussion will focus on how available evidence and data can support inclusive policies and practices at school level. Educational settings, residential distribution of the population, and households’ agency are recognised as main drivers for school segregation, which is a topic that cannot be addressed as a single policy field. What municipalities, schools, and other players can do to increase school inclusion and soften the reproduction of social inequalities in education? Discussion chaired by Giulia Guglielmini, President, Fondazione per la Scuola, in interaction with: – Carlotta Salerno, Council Member, Municipality of Turin – Oscar Eugenio Maroni, School Headmaster, IC Gino Strada, Turin – Andrea De Bortoli, Family Rappresentative, IC Gino Strada, Turin

The Plurality of Gaps. Territories, Skills, Technologies, Genders, Ecologies

Promoted by INDIRE

Auditorium Baffi
Wednesday, 05/June/2024: 2:30pm – 4:30pm

The Symposium “The Pluralities of Gaps”, based on a vision of school as a system in which numerous contextual elements intertwine and integrate, builds a narrative on the world of “gaps” that catches the entirety and complexity of the theme. Talking about gaps today requires a meditative thought capable of mastering the process of attributing new categories of meaning. In order to intercept or rethink possible futures, a plural look is needed, not only from the disciplinary point of view, paying attention to works that promote a constructive hybridization of various research sectors, but also from the methodological and ecological-relational point of view. The symposium managed by INDIRE is configured as an agora to know, share, confront, discuss and promote the forms that gaps take in educational research on education. It is a space capable of addressing the crisis through pedagogy of cooperation and solidarity also mentioned by UNESCO (2021) and welcoming those works capable of expanding horizons, highlighting a national and international comparison, and providing scientific perspectives with applicative value for the school community. 

The symposium will offer an in-depth study on:

  • Territorial Gaps. The latest UNESCO report titled “Reimagining our Futures Together. A new social contract for education” (2021) invites us to realize a new social contract for education. What new role of school is it possible to hypothesize in the society of post-democracy with attention to the territories in which phenomena of school dispersion, unemployment, social exclusion, and educational poverty are evident (Espon 2017; Kalinowski, Kielbasa 2017; Eurostat 2020)? INDIRE promotes a vision of education as a common good, where the school and the near territory become places to actively live in. Thanks to an approach oriented to the promotion of capabilities, these places can educate and train individuals who, respecting their own attitudes and abilities, are able to contribute to social and economic innovation.
  • Technological Gaps. Taking inspiration from the UNESCO report “ed-tech-tragedy,”(Unesco, 2021) it is necessary to assist schools in addressing the challenges of educational transformation through digital means. Generative technologies have allowed the identification of models and practices over the years for enriching, opening, and extending the classroom, experiences of shared teaching, and experiments related to areas with low digital density. Faced with disparities, schools can leverage solutions aimed at increasing literacy and awareness of technology as a “tool” that, through interventions in literacy, numeracy, data and digital literacy, and citizenship, helps create synergy between the humanistic and technological realms.
  • Skill Gaps. In the face of INVALSI and OECD PISA results, there is a strengthening of interventions aimed at improving the key skills of students, with particular reference to basic skills to ensure the development of solid initial training and to exercise full citizenship by each individual (functional alphabetic competence, multilingual competence, mathematical competence). Alongside basic skills, readness and digital skills of students are the basis of the transformation of educational systems. The digital transition is an important theme in the project of lifelong learning and empowerment of adults. Utilizing standards and educational models that can be applied in different contexts and territories leads to rethinking a new map for orientation for the purpose of social inclusion of both young people and adults.
    Gender Gaps. The school, as dictated by the Istanbul Convention, has a fundamental role in spreading the culture of equality, useful to counteract the stereotypes that condition the educational choices affecting school success and aimed at preventing gender violence. Educating about gender is inseparably connected to the concept of active citizenship and affective and relational education. A reflection is necessary on how Gender Education requires teachers to exercise a great deal of creativity and the ability to deconstruct an apparently neutral imaginary in order to reconstruct it day by day in educational practice. It is a systemic action that requires the contemporary and synergistic efforts of the entire educational community, in relation to the family and the community. This approach allows for the identification and sharing of good practices in the perspective of gender and respect education.
  • Ecological Gaps. The training and information initiatives and interventions aimed at students and teachers to address environmental crises and climate change are often included in the larger theme of “Climate Justice” and are fundamental axes of “Sustainable Development”. A shared reflection is needed to understand and promote the integration into the curricula of the skills defined in the GreenComp and to share research, ideas, and experiences that implement innovative “whole-school” educational approaches and that enhance a systemic thinking capable of promoting the realization of the right ecological transition that we have committed to pursue as members of the United Nations Assembly.


Aiello, L., Buffardi, A., Taddeo, G., & Zuccaro, A. (2020). Opportunità e sfide dell’istruzione terziaria professionalizzante in Italia. Scuola democratica, 11(1), 79-98.
Bagattini, D., & Pedani, V. (2022). Immaginario di genere: pratiche educative= Imagery of gender: educational practices. Segni e comprensione, (102), 129-144.
Bartolini, R., Mangione, G. R. J., & Zanoccoli, C. (2022). Small schools: Rethinking the forme scolaire for an educational compact that extends to the community and the territory. Formazione & insegnamento, 20(2), 14-35.
de Maurissens, I., & Pettenati, M. C. (2020). “Vale più di mille parole” La polisemia delle immagini nella formazione degli insegnanti ai temi globali. Formazione & insegnamento, 18(1 Tome I), 334-348.
Di Stasio, M., Camizzi, L., & Messini, L. (2022). Understanding languages and building literacies for citizens education. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 18(3), 117-127.
Gori, J. N., & Mori, S. (2022). Osservare e valutare le competenze trasversali per valorizzare il successo formativo nella scuola. Studi sulla Formazione/Open Journal of Education, 25(1), 93-102.
Mangione, G. R. J., & Cannella, G. (2021). Small school, smart schools: Distance education in remoteness conditions. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 26, 845-865.
Mosa, E. (2021). La scuola come palestra di cittadinanza. Riflessioni e buone pratiche da Avanguardie educative. Scuola democratica, 12(speciale), 313-323.
Parigi, L., & Camizzi, L. (2023). La scrittura tra strumentalità e abilità complesse nella prima alfabetizzazione: credenze, percezioni e pratiche degli insegnanti di scuola primaria. Graphos. Rivista Internazionale Di Pedagogia E Didattica Della Scrittura, 3, 37–58
Rosa, A. (2023). Assessment process for the usability of Diligo 2.0 in preschool. Italian Journal of Educational Technology, 31(1): 35-55. doi: 10.17471/2499-4324/1290
Scaradozzi, D., Guasti, L., Di Stasio, M., Miotti, B., Monteriù, A., & Blikstein, P. (2021). Makers at school, educational robotics and innovative learning environments: Research and experiences from FabLearn Italy 2019, in the Italian schools and beyond (p. 376). Springer Nature.

Symposium agenda

Chair: Giuseppina Rita Jose Mangione – INDIRE

Speakers: Annalisa Buffardi, Stefania Chipa, Isabel de Maurissens, Patrizia Lotti, Jessica Niewint, Valentina Pedani, Alessia Rosa – INDIRE

Discussant: Anna Maria Ajello – Sapienza University of Rome

Stereotypes and gender inequalities

Promoted by INVALSI

Auditorium SP
Tuesday, 04/June/2024: 2:30pm – 4:30pm

Gender stereotypes may have a significant impact by influencing different aspects of the educational process, work, and people’s lives.

In education, gender stereotypes have historically and almost universally impacted on performance in the scientific-mathematical disciplinary fields, leading to a persistent gender gap against girls. A very wide range of literature highlights the existence in many countries since of a gender gap in Mathematics the very early years of schooling and increases along schooling (Eurydice, 2010; Fryer and Levitt, 2010).

Italy represents a context in which these disparities are particularly pronounced: in the results of the latest OECD-PISA 2022 survey, the average difference in performance in mathematics between boys and girls was 21 points in favor of boys, the most pronounced gap globally.

Because of lower results in Mathematics for girls and the relative weaker perception of self-efficacy, gender stereotypes in education perpetuate their action by having a knock-on effect on academic choices as well, pushing girls to opt for certain fields of study considered more ‘appropriate’ for their gender, limiting their access to other fields, thus contributing to a gender-based occupational segregation. Typically, girls have much lower enrolment rates in the so-called STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) disciplines, while boys have lower attendance in the humanities, care and nursing.

Some research carried out by INVALSI – on joint data between school and university paths – have shown that many as 57% of boys but only 33% of girls with a better performance in Mathematics (top performers) enroll in STEM courses. Good competence in Mathematics, in fact, both as measured by standardized tests and in terms of teacher evaluation, has a different effect depending on student gender: high-achievement in Math triples the attitude towards attending a science-intensive degree courses for boys but only doubles for girls.

In this perspective, it is important to consider how crucial is the role of teachers with regard to gender stereotypes in education, both when assessing and regarding expectations towards male and female students.

Job market is similarly influenced by gender stereotypes: just think about the unequal pay, or the unequal. As a result, women are often paid less than men even if they have the same professional role; career choices are influenced, because some professional and occupational fields are considered more’masculine’ or ‘feminine’, to the point of leading to an unequal distribution of men and women in certain professions (STEM – Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – is an example); they create obstacles to the women professional career, contributing to the so-called ‘glass ceiling’ that prevents them from reaching specific leadership positions.

The Symposium aims to provide a complete and in-depth overview of the challenges and impacts that gender stereotypes generate in different areas of society a) raising awareness of the extent of gender stereotypes and their impacts; b) promoting the understanding of gender dynamics in various contexts; c) encouraging the sharing of ideas and strategies to address and overcome gender stereotypes; d) inspiring concrete actions to promote gender equality.

Thanks to planned interventions, the role of stereotypes in influencing the education, the world of work, social dynamics and everyday life will be explored.

Addressing these issues requires a collective effort to foster an educational environment that faces gender stereotypes, promoting the equality of opportunity and encouraging the diversity in academic and career choices. Awareness-raising initiatives, teacher training and critical review of educational materials are some of the ways in which educational institutions should address these issues. In the world of work, efforts are needed to promote gender equality policies, implement awareness-raising programs, and adopt recruitment and promotion practices based on skills and merit rather than gender stereotypes, too. Not only the individual but also the society as a whole will benefit from creating a fair and inclusive working environment.

EACEA P9 Eurydice (Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency) (2010), Gender Differences in Educational Outcomes: Study on the Measures Taken and the Current Situation in Europe.
Fryer R. G. and Levitt S.D. (2010), “An Empirical Analysis of the Gender Gap in Mathematics”, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2, 2: 210-40.

Symposium agenda

Chair: Patrizia Falzetti (INVALSI)

  • Welcome
  • Contestualizzazione degli stereotipi di genere nella società attuale Paolo Barabanti (INVALSI)
  • I divari di genere nelle scelte di istruzione: evidenze e meccanismi Dalit Contini (University of Turin)
  • Il paradosso di genere: donne più istruite degli uomini ma meno occupate e meno pagate Barbara Baldazzi (ISTAT)
  • Strategie per il cambiamento: riconoscere gli stereotipi di genere per contrastarli; come le istituzioni, la stampa e la società possono contribuire al cambiamento Flaminia Saccà (Sapienza University of Rome)
  • Discussion